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Swingle (ITIS) Common Name: Tree-of-heaven, China-sumac, varnishtree. ● Sumacs BfN-Skripten, 184:177. The roots and leaves contain allelopathic and herbicidal compounds (Heisey, 1990, 1997; Lin et al., 1995). It is the most widespread woody invasive species invading wooded areas in the USA, occurring wherever moisture allows (Luken and Thieret, 1997). Grapow LC, Blasi C, 1998. Compendium record. Toronto, Canada: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Hu SY, 1979. Swingle. and Anoplophora glabripennis (Zhang et al., 1992; Santamour and Riedel, 1993). Arboriculture & Urban Forestry, 33(1):55-63. In riparian communities, lower plant species richness and phylodiversity were associated to the presence of A. altissima (Constán-Nava, 2012). 39 (2), 29-50. Cronk QCB, Fuller JL, 1995. Extensive plantings in cities during the 1800’s has resulted in its naturalization across the United States. erythrocarpa Zhang RJ, Zhu J, Liu JJ, Duo SQ, Qian JJ, 1998. Description. Impact: Crowds out native species; damages pavement and building foundations in urban areas . based on seed traits. A. altissima has good drought resistance as it can reduce transpiration at the hottest point of the day, and a ring-porous wood structure which permits rapid transfer of water from the roots to the leaves, both of which have contributed to its success in mediterranean regions (Lepart et al., 1991).Reproductive Biology Silvae Genetica, 23(5):144-148. Invasion processes as related to succession and disturbance. was recorded for the sample in the range of 200–700 nm. Zhang YuFen, Lu Cun, Shi Yaqing, 1992. Beijing, China: Chinese Forestry Publishing House, 139-146. Both male and female flowers appear during July to August. ● Ashes Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. BASIONYM: Ailanthus glandulosa Desfontaines, var. Recent. American Journal of Botany, 77(5):662-670. Ses feuilles sont très longues (jusqu'à 60 cm de long) et virent au jaune en été. Landscape and Urban Planning, 94(3):244-249. The seeds have no endosperm. In Victoria, it is designated a regionally controlled weed under the Catchment and Land Protection Act 1994 (CaLP Act), a category W2/W3 weed under the Noxious Weeds Act 1993 (NWA) in New South Wales, in Western Australia it is prohibited until assessed, and it is a declared weed in other states and territories (Anon., 1998). https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/ailalt/all.html Burch PL, Zedaker SM, 2003. Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. Henderson L, 2001. In China, the tree of heaven has a long and rich history. Colonization by the tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima) in the French mediterranean region (Bas-Languedoc), and its phytosociological characteristics. A. altissima was named in 1916 by Swingle. The only states where it hasn't been reported are Vermont, New Hampshire, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming and Montana. Means of Introduction: Ornamental . Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. The plant can persist after burning, cutting and herbicide treatment and it is recommended that seedlings are removed by hand as early as possible, removing the entire taproot. 22:16-18; 6 ref. Black areas indicate the species naturalized range worldwide (Kowarik and Säumel, 2007). Beijing, China: Chinese Forestry Publishing House. (Range map provided courtesy of the USDA website ]; 9 ref. Kowarik I, Lippe Mvon der, 2011. However, it is not considered as pernicious as Robinia pseudoacacia in Japan.In the field investigations of A. altissima shoot reproduction, cutting and burning increased the shoot density from 0.27 to 2.79 shoots/m2. (Range map provided courtesy of the USDA website and is displayed here in accordance with their Policies) The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Ailanthus altissima is the only species that can grow in the temperate or cold regions. Ailanthus altissima (Tree-of-Heaven) Initial Introduction and Expansion in Range Native to China, Ailanthus altissima was brought to the United States in 1784 by a Philadelphia gardener. In vitro culture of valuable and rare Ailanthus altissima. Liang JingSen, Shang He, Li BaizHong, Yuan GongYing, Liu Zeng, 1998. http://www.weeds.org.au/index.html, Anon, 2002. The entire Province/State is coloured, regardless of where in that Province/State it occurs. Madrid, Spain: MOPU (Ministerias de Obras Publicas y Urbanismo). Civinova B, Sladky Z, 1990. It has a smooth, grey bark with compound leaves which are alternate, odd-pinnate, with 11-25 lanceolate leaflets. SE-EPPC, 2002. Journal of Arboriculture, 19(5):257-259; 4 ref. [Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. Atlas de las plantas aloctonas invasoras en Espana. Flowers are unisexual, and a single tree can produce up to 1 million wind-dispersed seeds in a year (Weber, 2003).Environmental RequirementsA. Managing tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) in parks and protected areas: a case study of Rondeau Provincial Park (Ontario, Canada). Illustrated Woody Plants of Korea. In Europe, A. altissima has colonized disturbed sites along roads and ditches, particularly in the Mediterranean region, where has successfully invaded several habitats including old fields, scrubland and pine, oak and riparian forests (Kowarik, 1983; Lepart et al., 1991; Kowarik and Säumel, 2007; Constán-Nava, 2012). Meloche C, Murphy SD, 2006. (Ailanthus altissima) Family: Quassia family (Simaroubaceae) Native Range: Central China. London, UK; Chapman & Hall Ltd, xiv + 241 pp. Climate. Ailanthus altissima is a small to medium-sized tree of the mostly tropical Quassia family. In Europe, A. altissima was introduced in the 1740s (Hu, 1979) and currently is widely established (Kowarik and Säumel, 2007; DAISIE, 2014). Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. Sanz-Elorza M, Dana Sanchez ED, Sobrino Vesperinas E, 2004. Genetic differences between American and Chinese Ailanthus seedlings.
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