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| Rhizophora apiculata and Acrostichum aureum are a common mangrove species in Malaysia. Rhizophora hypocotyls can be eaten after extraction of the tannin, but this is probably only of importance in times of famine. Epub 2015 Apr 9. Molecules. For biomass calculation, tree height and diameter were measured in plot of 10m x 10m in compartment 18, 31, 71, 74 and 67. After extraction of the tannins, the ash mainly consists of calcium carbonate (70%) and lime (18%) and can be used as fertilizer. This study assessed the The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized for particle size and zeta potential. Additional planting and planting in denuded areas mostly succeeds well, provided the ecological conditions are suitable. The timber is suitable for making furniture. Judging by the greatest volume production of firewood, a 40-year rotation is preferable. 447 pp. Bark grey, almost smooth or with vertical fissures. Rhizophora apiculata Blume: Morphological, Chemical and DNA Barcoding Methods Gurudeeban Selvaraj1,2*, Satyavani Kaliamurthi1,2, Ramanathan Thirungnasambamdam1 Abstract— "Kandal" (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) is a medicinal mangrove plant used to treat pain, inflammation and reduce blood glucose level in Southeast coast of India. Pharm Biol. a DPPH activity,…, Shows protecting the mitochondrial DNA damage of S. aureus using DNA nicking assay.…, Cytotoxic activity of methanol extract a on lung cancer cells (A549) and normal…, Methanolic extracts induces the apoptosis…, Methanolic extracts induces the apoptosis in A549 cells and confirmed by AO/EB staining…, NLM The in vitro antioxidant activity of solvent extracts showed excellent antioxidant potential, about 84% of DPPH free-radical scavenging, 76% of hydrogen peroxide, 82% of hydroxyl radical scavenging, and 80% of reducing power. PubMed:Distribution and accumulation of ultraviolet-radiation-absorbing compounds in leaves of tropical mangroves. The alignment of differential nucleotide positions of the SBE 2 gene from Rhizophora species of Kiribati and the Malay Peninsula are shown in Table 1. J. Cramer, Vaduz, Liechtenstein. In the absence of hurricanes and chain saws, individual trees may reach 40m or more. Keywords: National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error, Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts using agar-well diffusion method (. The bark of Rhizophora spp. This study used productivity models and above ground biomass to investigate productivity in different sites of MMFR. Main agroforestry usesSoil stabilization, coastal protection, wildlife/marine habitat for marine fauna. In Sri Lanka, Cerebera manghas is used in making masks for many traditional cultural activities. As thinning is a commercial operation, its timing, as well as the selection of tree species and stem diameter are influenced by market demand. The woods of Rhizophora species are primarily utilized for firewood and for making charcoal. Large areas of formerly productive Rhizophora stands have been made unproductive in this way. The DNA protection efficiency of extracts against oxidative damage was confirmed by DNA nicking assay using bacterial DNA. In all parts of tropical Asia, R. apiculata is cultivated on a commercial scale for production of firewood and particularly charcoal, poles and tannin. The poles are carried out of the swamp. Ninety Rhizophora apiculata leaf samples were collected from different compartments (18, 31, 71, 74, 42 and 55) based on tree age and management. Taken together, the results showed that the solvent extracts of R. apiculata could be potential antioxidant and anticancer agents. It is a well-known fact that the generation of free radicals has been associated with oxidative stress. The wood of R. apiculata can be split easily and has a high energy value, making it in great demand as firewood and for making charcoal. The system of final harvesting of trees for fuelwood varies between countries. Total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of Meyna spinosa Roxb., an Indian medicinal plant. NIH Initially, the phenolic and flavonoid content was quantified in solvent extracts, and gallic acid and rutin were used as a control, respectively. Initially, the phenolic and flavonoid content was quantified in solvent extracts, and gallic acid and rutin were used as a control, respectively. Rhizophora apiculata is mostly preferred for replanting programmes at mangrove sites in Southeast Asia due to its multitude of uses. Established in 1964, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species. Propagules of Rhizophora spp. Wood anatomy of Rhizophoraceae. Rhizophora apiculata Blume Lim Sheh Hong, Darah Ibrahim, Jain Kassim and Suraya Sulaiman A research was conducted to study the anticandidal compound of tannin extracted from the barks of a mangrove tree, Rhizophora apiculata Blume. Inflorescence in R. mucronata longer, forked 2 or 3 times, with more numerous flowers; hypocotyl longer (35-65(-90) cm). Fruit an ovoid or inversely pear-shaped berry, 2-3.5 cm long, rather rough, brown. generated in the process of charcoal making has the potential to be used as antifungal agent especia Rhizophora apiculata pyroligneous acid Rhizophora apiculata pyroligneous acid which is a crude condensate produced from the distillation of smoke lly to treat candidal infections. Evergreen tree, up to over 30 m tall and with trunk up to 50 cm in diameter, generally much smaller in exploited forests; bole 10-12 m; stem supported by numerous, lateral, much branched stilt roots; aerial roots sometimes develop from the lower branches; taproot usually abortive; branching primarily sympodial. Rhizophora apiculata Blume. Naz R, Roberts TH, Bano A, Nosheen A, Yasmin H, Hassan MN, Keyani R, Ullah S, Khan W, Anwar Z. PLoS One. It is unlikely that any substantial germplasm collections of R. apiculata are being maintained. Establishment and growth of mangrove seedlings in mangrove forests of southern Thailand. Description. Putz, F.E. There are no known breeding programmes. 5. A few specimens have been collected with characters intermediate between R. apiculata, R. mucronata and R. stylosa in western Malesia and western New Guinea. The present study is designed to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of Rhizophora apiculata . Long-term, multiple-use management plans have to be developed and implemented to ensure sustainable use of the remaining resource. Allelochemical interaction of the mangrove species was speculated to play an important role in dominance in the harsh mangrove environment. The root protrudes from the fruit, producing a green, spindle-shaped rod (hypocotyl) of up to 40 cm long. R. stylosa has broadly elliptical leaf blades, up to 12 cm × 7 cm, flowers with styles 4-6 mm long and the hypocotyl up to 30 cm long. Rhizophora apiculata is distinguished from R. × lamarckii and R. × annamalai plus other IWP species by swollen (wider than long), corky br own bracts, one inﬂorescence Vivipary is characteristic for Rhizophora species. In practice, thinning is irregular, incomplete and selective, and poorly accessible stands are often neglected. Rhizophora mucronata is used for the treatment of inflammation diarrhea, and angina disorders by people of India and Burma. The bark, according to some analyses, contains large quantities of pentosans and furfurol. Seedlings may retain their viability for several months. Check other web resources for Rhizophora apiculata Blume : PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories ; In: van Steenis, C.G.G.J. The present study is designed to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of Rhizophora apiculata.Initially, the phenolic and flavonoid content was quantified in solvent extracts, and gallic acid and rutin were used as a control, respectively. The genus Rhizophora contains more species of mangrove than any other. PubMed:Antiviral properties of a mangrove plant, Rhizophora apiculata Blume, against human immunodeficiency virus. Mature propagules that remain viable for 4-5 months are gathered from the forest floor. With the opening of the canopy, the ferns may form up to 4 m tall, dense, continuous thickets, making it impossible for propagules of Rhizophora to enter the area. J. Arnold Arbor. Anticancer activity; Antioxidant activity; DNA nicking assay; Flavonoids; Rhizophora apiculata. It does not occur in fresh water swamps. Rhizophoraceae. Tropical Ecology 21: 113-124. Damaged young trees are capable of recovering by sprouting from dormant buds and bending upwards to form another erect stem. The tallest trees are closest to … Average annual increase in diameter over a 30-year period in Matang, Malaysia, was 0.32 cm. Recently, they have also been extensively harvested for woodchips or converted for agricultural and aquacultural purposes. It occurs throughout the Malesian region and reaches southwards to the Tropic of Capricorn in Queensland, and eastwards as far as New Caledonia and Ponape (Micronesia). Forest Ecology and Management 17: 211-230. Tree growth, dynamics, and productivity in a mature mangrove forest in Malaysia. Mangrove-based Rhizophora apiculata was used to synthesize silver nanoparticles. Activity-guided isolation of antioxidant compounds from Rhizophora apiculata. 2017 Ecophysiological responses of young mangrove species Rhizophora apiculata (Blume) to … Their tangled prop root systems – illustrated in the header photo – are the “trademark” associated with all mangroves by most people (if they have heard … R. apiculata is slightly more common than R. mucronata to which it is closely related. in Papua New Guinea. The best way to regenerate a mangrove stand at the least cost is to encourage reproduction in the period before the final harvest by thinning and by minimizing damage to young plants during harvesting. have been reported to be the major pests of newly planted propagules. Rhizophora hypocotyls can be eaten after extraction of the tannin, but this is probably only of importance in times of famine. Pores are small, circular, fairly numerous, straight, solitary and in short radial groups, mostly in pairs, and frequently with dark gummy deposits. Agroforestry Uses: A part of the mangrove swamps, the tree helps to protect inland areas from the effects of the ocean, including stabilizing the shore line and giving protection from strong winds and storms. Estimates of annual litterfall vary from 6-11.5 t/ha. FTIR analysis of solvent extracts showed the presence of phenolic compounds at 3409-3430 cm-1 that actively involved in various applications including antioxidant and anticancer activities. Chapman, V.J., 1976. Thailand and Indonesia adopt strip-felling, the Philippines and East Malaysia practise minimum diameter harvesting, while clear-felling has been traditionally carried out in Peninsular Malaysia. | The sapwood is light yellow, 3-5 cm thick, and very distinct from the heartwood which is reddish-brown and darkens with age. is one of the most important species in mangrove forest and often used for forest rehabilitation, particularly at Muara Teluk Naga Village, Tangerang District. (Editor): Flora Malesiana Series I, Vol. R. apiculata is commonly found in most mangrove swamps in tropical Asia, from the delta of the Indus in Pakistan to Vietnam and Hainan. Flowers bisexual, sessile, yellow; calyx deeply 4-lobed, coriaceous, accrescent and reflexed in fruit, lobes ovate, 10-14 mm × 6-8 mm, concave, acute, brown-yellow to reddish, persistent; receptacle with a disk; petals 4, free, lanceolate, 8-11 mm × 1.5-2 mm, membranous, glabrous, early caducous; stamens mostly 12, sessile, anthers 6-7.5 mm long, acute, multi-loculate, opening with a large ventral valve; ovary semi-inferior, 2-celled, superior part enclosed by the disk, bluntly conical, 1.5-3.5 mm long; style 0.5-1 mm long, 2-lobed. This process involves selecting a well-formed tree and felling all pole-sized trees around it within a radius drawn by a stick 1.2-1.8 m long. Derris trifoliata Loureiro can also be a serious strangling weed. Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Read "Growth and water use of the mangroves Rhizophora apiculata and R. stylosa in response to salinity and humidity under ambient and elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO 2, Plant Cell & Environment" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. According to , Rhizophora apiculata is a species of plant in the Rhizophoraceae family. Production and international trade In all parts of tropical Asia, R. apiculata is cultivated on a commercial scale for production of firewood and particularly charcoal, poles and tannin. Rhizophora apiculata is a least studied mangrove-based plant that has been used in the traditional medicine of Southeast Asia for its healing properties. Felling of R. apiculata for poles is essentially a thinning operation in which straight pole-sized individuals are cut. Photo courtesy of Barry Clough. In vitro antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activities of Rhizophora mucronata. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. If cut at least 20 cm above the stilt roots, regeneration is without problems. 413 pp. Planting programmes often coincide with the fruiting season. Compliance with ethical standardsThe authors declare that there is no conflict of interest to disclose. 2020 Jul 29;15(7):e0236319. Accepted Name Plantae > Tracheophyta > Equisetopsida C. Agardh > Malpighiales Juss. Thailand has prescribed the maintainance of a 10 m uncut strip along waterways to reduce the effects of waves and currents on regeneration. Singapore: bakau minyak, red-tree. Main productsTimber, fuelwood, charcoal, dyes, and traditional medicine. In Peninsular Malaysia it takes 35 years for R. apiculata to reach a stem diameter of 19 cm at breast height. may occur throughout South-East Asia as a low, tufted ground cover under the canopy. Srivastava, P.B.L., Keong, G.B. It grows gregariously in swamps flooded by normal high tide, on deep soft mud of estuaries, often consolidated and sheltered from surf and currents by pioneer species of Avicennia L. and Sonneratia L. R. apiculata avoids hard soils and develops well in per-humid regions where it can form almost pure stands, sometimes in association with Bruguiera spp. Two-way ANOVA analysis showed that the highly significant effect of antioxidant activity depends on the concentration of extracts. The stem of R. apiculata is upright and cylindrical in closed forest, but plants develop a straggling or semi-prostrate habit in unfavourable sites. Background: Cigarette smoke is free radical that causing some pathological conditions such as inflammation, proteolysis, and oxidative stress.In previous studies, mangrove (Rhizophora apiculata) bark extract showed the potential effect as an antioxidant. Few production statistics from natural or planted stands are available. Wildings are readily available, as natural regeneration is often profuse. The nanoparticles were tested for toxicity against MG-63 cells. Rhizophora spp. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Foliage and soil nutrients in Rhizophora apiculata Bl. Minimum diameter for charcoal production varies from 20.5 cm in Sabah to 4 cm in Vietnam. & Muktar, A., 1987. The ash content is about 1 g per 100 g wood of the stem and prop roots, and 2 g in branch wood. Inflorescence axillary (in leaf scar below the leaf rosette), 2-flowered; peduncle thick, 0.5-1.5 cm long; bracteoles at the base of flower, cup-shaped, fleshy, crenulate. The bark provides a medicine against dysentery. One-seeded fruits start to germinate when still hanging on the tree. stands. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0236319. Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres (66 to 82 ft) on the banks of rivers. Cookies help us deliver our services. Abstract— "Kandal" (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) is a medicinal mangrove plant used to treat pain, inflammation and reduce blood glucose level in Southeast coast of India. It is killed by frost and by extended periods of near-freezing temperatures. Mangrove vegetation. The branched stilt roots weighted with stones serve as anchors. Eventually, the seedling falls from the fruit, floats with the high tide and establishes if it reaches a suitable site. Rhizophora apiculata Taxonomy ID: 106626 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid106626) current name Tomlinson, P.B., 1986. PubMed:Growth of a mangrove (Rhizophora apiculata) seedlings as influenced by GA3, light and salinity. In Vietnam, annual wood production is about 60 000 t. The energy value of the stems, branches and prop roots is 15 000-19 000 kJ/kg, of charcoal 32 200 kJ/kg. YieldsIn Malaysia, the 30-year rotation har- vested yield of green wood has been about 136– 299 mt/ha (61–133 t/ac). Large concessions in Indonesia require felling of trees down to a stem diameter of 7 cm in 50 m wide strips interspaced with 20 m undisturbed strips in a proposed 20-year rotation. In some plantations, long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascularis) and grapsid crabs (Sesarma spp.) Bai X, Lai T, Zhou T, Li Y, Li X, Zhang H. Molecules. Occasionally, bagworms and larvae of the moth Strelote lipara cause localized defoliation of trees and seedlings. Current rotations vary from 15 years (in firewood plantations in Thailand) to 20-30 years, but may be even shorter. Growth and water use of the mangroves. Role of Acrostichum species in natural regeneration of Rhizophora species in Malaysia. Chin J Nat Med. 2012 Sep 6;17(9):10675-82. doi: 10.3390/molecules170910675. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! In nurseries shade is neither advantageous nor harmful. Indonesia: bakau minyak (general), bako (Javanese), babakoan laut (Sundanese), Malaysia: bakau minyak, bakau tandok, bakau akik, Papua New Guinea: abia (Gulf Province), bahkweh (Northern Province), pana (Central Province), Philippines: bakauan (lalaki), uakatan (Tagalog), bakhau (Samar). a Butanol, b chloroform, c ethanol, d…, GCMS analysis of methanol extracts a showed the presence of hexadecanoic acid, oleic…, Antioxidant activity of R. apiculata solvent extracts at different concentration. Thinning is important for good stand development. In South-East Asia 3 Rhizophora species occur: R. apiculata, R. mucronata Poiret and R. stylosa Griffith. Rhizophora apiculata is called ‘bakhaw lalaki,’ in the Philippines, "Thakafathi ތަކަފަތި" in the Maldives, 'Đước' in Vietnam, Garjan in India, as well as other vernacular names. Leiden Botanical Series 3: 20-75. The tannin of Rhizophora is associated with a substance which darkens gradually; it is used as a deep brown or black dye. Seedlings tend to be taller in shade and produce fewer roots. The planting procedure is simple, involving inserting the propagules vertically into the muddy soil along predetermined lines and spacings. Rhizophora apiculata. 59:156-169. HHS Other Uses The bark is an important local source of tannin Hypocotyl cylindrical to club-shaped, up to 40 cm × 1.2 cm before falling, often slightly curved, more or less blunt, smooth and shining, green tinged with red. Growth rings and parenchyma are indistinct. GC-MS analysis, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antilipoxygenase and cytotoxic activities of Jacaranda mimosifolia methanol leaf extracts and fractions. 2018 Jun 8;23(6):1395. doi: 10.3390/molecules23061395. USA.gov. are sometimes attacked by a scolytid beetle (Poecilips fallax). In sites where attempts at planting had previously failed due to pest problems, planting nursery-raised seedlings and transplanting of wildings proved successful. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov.
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